Gonorrhoea Prevention in Youth: Health Promotion Essay Sample

This health promotion sample paper focuses on combating Gonorrhoea in young adults aged 15-24 in Sandwell, utilizing an educational poster to encourage safe sexual practices and reduce infection rates

Health Promotion Poster on Gonorrhea for Adult Nursing

This health promotion assignment is based on Gonorrhoea a Sexual health Infection (STI) in young people aged 15-24 years in Sandwell.  A poster will be used to help educate young people to reduce the rising prevalence of gonorrhoea. The poster will contain evidence regarding the rising cases of gonorrhoea and provide young people with evidence-based strategies for preventing gonorrhoea and maintaining responsible sexual practices, by focusing on secondary interventions using the health belief model. The assignment will also examine the advantages and disadvantages of using the health promotion models and identify the community stakeholders that will be involved in multidisciplinary team collaboration for the project. Finally, challenges encountered by the multiagency team will be explored followed by an extensive evaluation of the outcome of the health promotion methods. 

The public health issue of concern is Gonorrhoea. This is a sexually transmitted disease caused by a bacterium known as Neisseria gonorrhoea (Unemo et al., 2019). The presence of gonorrhoea can be diagnosed by taking a sample of urine or discharge from the penis, vagina, rectum or mouth (Mackenzie and Cathrine, 2016). Men are more asymptomatic with gonorrhoea compared to women. Gonorrhoea is a fundamental public health concern since it is highly infectious, with detrimental consequences on an individual, if left untreated (Unemo et al., 2019). Furthermore, gonorrhoea is becoming increasingly developing resistance to conventional antibiotics, leading to detrimental clinical outcomes in individuals and populations (Unemo et al., 2019).

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 According to the World Health Organization, there were approximately 87 million new cases of gonorrhoea in 2016, with a majority of the cases reported in adolescents and young adults between the ages of 15 and 49 (WHO, 2022). In the United Kingdom, there were 57,084 cases of gonorrhoea in the year 2019 (Public Health England [PHE], 2022a). However, the greatest incidence of the disease was recorded in 2019, at 70,922 cases. Young adults aged 15-24 years record the highest annual rate of gonorrhoea with 386 cases per 100,000 persons. There are also higher infection rates in men compared to women with a male-to-female ratio estimated at 1.8:1 (PHE, 2022a). In comparison to the national statistics, Sandwell has higher rates of gonorrhoea. Between 2019 and 2020, the incidence of gonorrhoea in Sandwell increased by 2.2% and was more prevalent in young people aged 15-24 years (PHE, 2022b). The most common complications of untreated or poorly managed gonorrhoea in the UK include; pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) ectopic pregnancy and infertility (Fairly et al., 2017). In males, gonorrhoea may also lead to epididymitis that culminates in the painful swelling of the testicles. The key drivers to the rising prevalence of gonorrhoea are complex and multifactorial. They include; irresponsible sexual behaviour (unprotected sexual activity, and multiple sexual partners), inadequate access to healthcare services and the emergence of an antibiotic-resistant strain of gonorrhoea (Fairly et al., 2017). Lack of education regarding safe sexual practices also contributes significantly to the rising prevalence of the infection. Some individuals also have genetic variations that increase their susceptibility to developing the infection. Furthermore, gonorrhoea is more prevalent among homosexual men and black ethnicity is characterized by socioeconomic deprivation (Bignell et al., 2006). The rise in the number of sex workers has resulted in a subsequent increase in rates of gonorrhoea compared to homosexuality and ethnic minorities (Bignell et al., 2006).

The selected health promotion resource for the target population is an educational poster that raises awareness regarding the risks and consequences of gonorrhoea while promoting prevention techniques such as responsible sexual behaviour. The poster would be developed with simple and clear language and captivating graphics through would appeal to the group while educating them (Denford et al., 2017). A poster is selected because it is a cost-effective but efficacious mechanism of disseminating health promotion education to large audiences ((Narido and will, 2010 pp 176-177). The poster is underpinned by the health belief model which asserts that individuals are more likely to indulge in health-promoting behaviours if they regard themselves to be at significant risk of a health problem (Neuberger & Pabian, 2019). Therefore, the poster will promote awareness of the serious risk of gonorrhoea among young people and establish the need for testing, treatment and safe sex practices (Neuberger & Pabian, 2019). A poster also condenses health information and customizes it to meet the specific needs and preferences of young adults. In Sandwell, posters can be displayed in schools, community centres, clinics, public spaces, pubs and social media platforms where young people regularly visit and obtain information and services (Rowe, 2009). Furthermore, the poster will be uploaded and shared on social media platforms that young people visit and obtain information (Frankein et al., 2006).  A study conducted by Denford et al., (2017) showed that educational interventions such as the use of posters aimed at young people improved their knowledge of responsible sexual behaviour, leading to a reduction in the rates of STIs.

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The core aim of the health promotion resource (educational poster) is to provide comprehensive education to young people aged 15-24 in Sandwell against gonorrhoea by increasing patient awareness about the risk, transmission routes, and preventive practices (PHE, 2022b).

  • To display educational posters to at least 25 schools, community settings, college youth centres and clinics in high-risk areas as indicated by the Sandwell gonorrhoea infection rates by the end of 6 months.
  • To educate at least 75% of the target group (young people aged 15-24 years) to identify the risks of gonorrhoea, transmission strategies and prevention practices by the end of 12 months.
  • To decrease the rates of new gonorrhoea infections in the target group by 25% by the end of 12 months, as reported by the community health unit.
  • By the end of 18 months, at least 85% of sexually active young people (15-24) who have been sexually active in the preceding 12 months will have access to adequate testing and treatment for gonorrhoea as reported by the community health unit.

The health promotion approach utilized is the socio-ecological model, which is founded on the understanding that health outcomes are influenced by a wide range of factors including individual behaviour, interpersonal relationships, societal factors and community (Sibeudu, 2022). The model was selected because it acknowledges the interconnected and complex nature of factors contributing to gonorrhoea, leading to a multifaceted and comprehensive approach to health promotion. The socio-ecological model is advantageous the because it allows for the implementation of target interventions at multiple levels, leading to a more effective and sustainable approach that acknowledges the power structures and the social determinants of health (Sibeudu, 2022). One of the key challenges of the socio-ecological approach is that it requires significant interdisciplinary collaboration and coordination that be difficult to attain. Furthermore, the model may not effectively address the individual factors that may influence behaviour change such as motivation, beliefs and attitudes. The behaviour change selected for the health promotion resource is the Theory of planned behaviour (TPB) which maintains that an individual's behaviour is influenced by their subjective norms, attitudes and perceived behavioural control (Sibeudu, 2022)…Read More

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